勞倫斯伯克利輻射實驗室

2019-11-22 00:04:23
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名稱: 勞倫斯伯克利輻射實驗室

美國勞倫斯伯克力國家實驗室(Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ) www.lbl.gov勞倫斯伯克利輻射實驗室是美國的一個大型多學科研究中心,是能源部的多功能實驗室之一,由加利福尼亞大學進行具體管理。位于美國加利福尼亞州的伯克利,與加利福尼亞大學伯克利分校緊鄰。以它的奠基人物理學家E.O.勞倫斯的姓和該室的所在地命名。其前身為勞倫斯1931 年創建的輻射實驗室的伯克利部分。

目前約有 3 600 多人,研究人員中有許多是加利福尼亞大學伯克利分校的教授。科研與教學緊密結合,是該實驗室的一個特點。2004年的財政預算超過5億美元。特別值得提出的是,目前實驗室的主任是朱棣文先生,他是極少數擔任美國國家學術機構領導的華人之一。

勞倫斯伯克利早期關注于高能物理領域的研究。現在的主要研究領域是核物理、高能物理、核化學、生物和醫學、分子科學和材料科學的基礎研究等。近年來在環境問題的分析和新能源技術,特別是地熱能源、礦物燃料、太陽能及核聚變的發展方面也進行了大量的研究。50 多年來,該實驗室一直在許多學科的科學研究上處于領先的地位,在國際上贏得了很高的聲譽。該室的研究人員曾9 次獲得諾貝爾獎金。例如,G.T.西博格和E.M.麥克米倫由于發現超鈾元素和美籍華人李遠哲由于研究交叉分子束方法而分別獲得1951 和1986 年諾貝爾化學獎。镎、钚、鋯、锎、锿、鍆、锘和鐒都是在該室發現的。對于镅和鐨的發現,該室也起了重要作用。該室的許多重要設備,包括世界上第一臺回旋加速器和后來的超重離子直線加速器和高能重離子加速器(Bevalac)等,都是本室自己設計和建造的。出版物有《勞倫斯-伯克利實驗室報告》等。

In the world of science, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) is synonymous with “excellence.” Eleven scientists associated with Berkeley Lab have won the Nobel Prize. Fifty-seven Lab scientists are members of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), one of the highest honors for a scientist in the United States. Thirteen of our scientists have won the National Medal of Science, our nation's highest award for lifetime achievement in fields of scientific research. Eighteen of our engineers have been elected to the National Academy of Engineering, and three of our scientists have been elected into the Institute of Medicine. In addition, Berkeley Lab has trained thousands of university science and engineering students who are advancing technological innovations across the nation and around the world.

Berkeley Lab is a member of the national laboratory system supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through its Office of Science. It is managed by the University of California (UC) and is charged with conducting unclassified research across a wide range of scientific disciplines. Located on a 200-acre site in the hills above the UC Berkeley campus that offers spectacular views of the San Francisco Bay, Berkeley Lab employs approximately 4,200 scientists, engineers, support staff and students. Its budget for 2010 is $707 million, with an additional $104 million in funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, for a total of $811 million. A recent study estimates the Laboratory’s overall economic impact through direct, indirect and induced spending on the nine counties that make up the San Francisco Bay Area to be nearly $700 million annually. The Lab was also responsible for creating 5,600 jobs locally and 12,000 nationally. The overall economic impact on the national economy is estimated at $1.6 billion a year. Technologies developed at Berkeley Lab have generated billions of dollars in revenues, and thousands of jobs. Savings as a result of Berkeley Lab developments in lighting and windows, and other energy-efficient technologies, have also been in the billions of dollars.

Berkeley Lab was founded in 1931 by Ernest Orlando Lawrence, a UC Berkeley physicist who won the 1939 Nobel Prize in physics for his invention of the cyclotron, a circular particle accelerator that opened the door to high-energy physics. It was Lawrence’s belief that scientific research is best done through teams of inpiduals with different fields of expertise, working together. His teamwork concept is a Berkeley Lab legacy that continues today.

The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory conducting unclassified scientific research. It is located on the grounds of the University of California, Berkeley, in the Berkeley Hills above the central campus. It is managed and operated by the University of California for the DOE.